With time you will learn to understand the arguments better. That is the beginning of the trouble. If you are raised as a believer of something you may experience some fear and helplessness in the darkness of the second stage. The density of fear is proportional to the salience of your family values and the degree of your relation with your close family members, and society.
I won’t liken philosophers to a gang of blind wannabe zoologists trying to describe an elephant by touching her body from different positions. Philosophers develop and create new perspectives for old problems. As a by-product of their zeal they create many new problems. Nevertheless, each argument, by opening another peephole from a different direction contributes to enlarge our vision. Occasionally, one of those peepholes changes the whole picture.
Our eyes are dazzled with the light of modern scientific blaze. Any argument spiced with a bunch of latest scientific jargon gets a good chance of being treated with high respect. Did science become a goddess with scientists as her gullible worshipers? Or, are we still underestimating the power of science and technology?
As a member of University, now I am participating in a ritual which empowers the academic hierarchy and justifies the existence of the institution. In order to get some share from its symbolic power stock market, I am obligated to write a paper that should demonstrate the habitus of social scientists: impose on myself to evaluate the evaluation of a respected member of other respected members of the club. I am expected not to use slang. I am expected to cite a long list of accepted intellectual works. I am expected to create a theory of my own, and occasionally manufacture new jargons as trade mark of my production. I know that I am not expected to divert from formal guidelines. I know that it is only tolerated to a certain extend when your name has gained certain authority in the hierarchy. Well, I tried my best to fit the mold. But, I continuously struggled in a dilemma created by my rebellious and mischievous thoughts. Here is my intellectual “cookie” prepared in a sleepless night that was occasionally interrupted by my newborn son’s ritualistic cry.
It is a travesty that our educational system is filling the minds of youngsters with plenty of data without training them how to process them properly. Individuals and societies suffer greatly from logical fallacies that invite harmful choices, superstitions, bigotry, extremism, and manipulative propaganda. Critical reasoning skills empower individuals and societies to make better decisions in their financial, political, social and personal choices.
The prototype disbeliever who is challenged by the number 19 is described as the one who makes erroneous inferences (74:18-20). The repetitious reference to his fallacious logic emphasizes the importance of thinking and inferring properly.
God has embedded in our hardware and system software the rules of logical thinking (rooh and aql), which amazingly work perfectly in harmony with the rules of external or natural world. If we employ these rules they will help us to understand God’s law in the nature and the scripture. Our ego, our weakness to follow the crowd, our short term petty interests and similar interference can prevent us from employing those rules correctly or efficiently.